published in The Noetic Journal 2(1), 52-67, 1999.
The Nature of Man-Universe connections
Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
H-1525 Budapest, P. O. Box 67, Hungary
Abstract. It is presented a review of some of the most important and newly explored connections between Man and the Universe. It is shown that a wide range of a fully not yet recognised Man-Universe connections exist. The material connections between Man and the Universe goes back to solar system cosmogonic processes. It is indicated here that a cosmic organising activity has to be postulated to be present in the presolar nebula in order to met with the observational constraints. It is pointed out that an ultrasensitive mutual regulative interaction is present between the planetary and solar cores with a gravitational, and, partly, of electromagnetic (EM) nature. It is found that the Sun is actually an open system, being far from thermodynamic equilibrium, presenting spontaneous changes and that its energy regulation is influenced by planetary gravitational and EM fields. Cosmic EM fields play a significant role in the organisation of life phenomena of the terrestrial biosphere, extending to influencing mental activities as well. Besides the well-known EM transversal waves, longitudinal and scalar EM waves are also present, and their physical properties are outlined. Ultra-weekly interacting hypothetic particles like axions are predicted to possess special biological role. Moreover, it is suggested that the cosmic radiation, neutrino and light contains biological information. Moreover, the possibilities of Man-Universe coupling with quantum-vacuum waves are explored, and the presence of a cosmological particle mediating information between Man and the Universe-as-a-whole is indicated. The presence of primeval scalar waves (of spin-0, mass-0 ‘particles’) may contribute to immediate action-in-distance. Direct action-in-distance is indicated to play a central role in the organisation of the Universe. The general presence of cosmic ultrasensitive processes in Man-Universe connections gives a physical basis for the possible cosmic role of Man in the cosmic evolution.
Introduction. What kind of connections do we maintain with our parental Universe? In the present materialistic world-view, the Universe consists of material objects which may be handled mostly as closed physical systems. Interactions between the ‘closed systems’ occurs only sporadically, characteristically by destructive random factors like collisions or explosions. Although some sporadical interaction is allowed in such a frame of thought, the opposite way around, i.e. the actions of man or mankind to the extraterrestrial systems are regarded as completely ignorable in the materialistic world-view. In this widely circulating view there is no mutuality between Man and the Universe but a one-sided, characteristically dangerous, blindly terroristic Universe is pictured which is completely alienated from its next-generation descendants like humans, from which the most probable event what we humans may expect, now completely unforeseen, are cosmic catastrophes. So the Universe is pictured as a cosmic enemy acting rarely but brutally. In this Blind Terrorist-picture the occasional elimination of Mankind or the whole terrestrial biosphere would not have any consequence on the development of the Universe. In this present essay, I will try to outline some evidences against this crude picture. If the blind terrorist-picture proves to be not only oversimplifying, but incorrect in its deepest points, it may turn that terrestrial organic processes and collective consciousness fields may actually be connected to the Universe and exert significant influence on its evolution. In this present essay an attempt is made to explore this latter possibility.
The organising force of the solar system
In the basic textbooks of natural sciences the most direct connection between Man and the Universe is given by the perspective that both Man and the Universe build up from the same material blocks, from the same atomic constituents. This picture may call our attention to the possible explanation of this fact, which may lead to reveal the laws connecting the material Universe and the Earth. Even this rigid picture is shattered somewhat by the recognition that at least four extraordinary cataclysm are necessary for supplying the isotopes found at Earth in the quantity detected. Cameron and Truran (1977) expressed the hope that most of the isotopic anomalies and traces of extinct radioactivities found in solar system material, e.g. in the Allende carbonaceous meteorite, may be accounted by a single supernova event which preceded the formation of the solar system only by a few million years. A few million years is about on thousandth of the present age of the solar system. Moreover, the frequencies of supernova explosions near the solar system are so low that to apply for a supernova only to supply some excess isotopes would be highly unlikely. Therefore, Cameron and Truran suggest that the supernova would be not an additional factor of solar system formation, but its trigger, i.e. the supernova explosion compressed the presolar cloud to initiate the collapse of planets and the Sun. Nevertheless, Reeves (1981) pointed out that the 7 degree inclination of the equatorial plane of the Sun to the ecliptic plane, in which the planets circle around the Sun, points to a separate cataclysm of the presolar cloud which acted preferentially on the Sun. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen and helium of Uranus and Neptune is significantly smaller than in the inner planets of Saturn and Jupiter. This anomaly of missing light elements needs a cataclysm which could evaporate and expel the light elements from Uranus and Neptune, but not from Saturn and Jupiter. This would be possible if Saturn and Jupiter would be formed earlier and bound their light element content. Later on, a cataclysm should happen arising from the Sun, and this event could expel the gravitationally still not bounded hydrogen and helium from the region of Uranus and Neptune (Lyttleton, 1960). This already the third hypothetical cataclysm. But this proved still not enough, since Wasserburg, Busso and Gallino (1996) have shown that some isotopes (like I129 and Pd107) do not arise from the same supernova event as others (Hf182, Mn53, Fe60). Taking into account that a nearby supernova can supply the necessary amount of the terrestrial isotopes only if it is close enough, and the probability of such a supernova is extremely small, one could think the intervention of such a supernova as a very special condition. Regarding the fact that at least four similar events are necessary, one should regard the highly improbable chain of extraordinary events as indicative to improve our physical picture of the formation of the solar system in a radical way. I point out, that another fundamental factor of the solar system is that the heavy element content of the planets reach more than ten percent of that of the Sun, while it is estimated that the fragmenting presolar cloud left almost all of its mass, 99% in the central Sun (Clayton, 1982). This would mean that the part of the presolar cloud would be enhanced in heavy elements at least ten times in comparison to the Sun! One can get another constraint for the incapability of the presolar cloud to supply the necessary amount of the heavy elements observed to be present in the planets, when regarding the iron-content of the planets. The iron-content of the Earth is larger then 30% (Cox, 1989, p. 11). Since the planets like Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus contains around 40-80 earth-mass (see e.g. Encrenaz et al., 1991; ME = 6*1027 g), all the planets together may contain 15-30 earth-mass iron, which is 1-2*1029g. In the Sun, the iron content is around 0.1% (Hoyle, 1975, p. 496, table 11.2), therefore the total mass of solar iron is around 2*1030 g. The result of the comparison tells again that in order to supply the planets with their iron content, it would need a larger the 0.1 solar mass cloud, in contrast with the accepted value of less than 0.01 solar mass.
All these observations indicate that there is a much direct interaction of the materials of the Galaxy, and even within the solar system, than it is today comprehended. Moreover, this interaction can not be “blind”, it cannot be attributed by mere chance alone. The cosmic interactions organising the solar system, together with the planets, has to possess a previously unrecognised organising capability, which could be the most interesting property of the solar system itself. I attempt to show, that besides these indications, there are other strong indications suggesting that an organising principle is at work in the solar system which can be compared in its activity to the life-giving biological principle. Moreover, this organic principle is indicated to be connected intimately with the everyday biological organisation processes of earthly living beings, and, between them, with our states of health and mental states.
Solar Cycle in the Core of the Earth
Observations have shown that sudden jumps in the gradient of the magnetic field temporal variations set up in 1836, 1910 and 1969-1970 (Courtillot, Ducruix, Le Mouel, 1978). They compared these dates with the dates of the minimum of the Earth’s rotation rate, occurred at 1840-1845, 1905-1910 and 1970-1972, finding them in close coincidence. Both phenomena are understood as related to the core of the Earth, where the magnetic dynamo works (Lambeck, 1980). For the dynamo mechanism macroscopic velocity fields are a necessary input. And if we compare the above data with the sudden changes in the solar activity, we find again interesting coincidences. Three sudden jumps occurred in the phase of the solar cycle in the last two centuries. A 180-degree-jump took place around 1824 in the cyclogram of Attolini et al. (1985), signing a jump in the solar activity. Moreover, a 90-degree-jump set up at 1903, signing that an important event had happened in the Sun at the time when the period of activity suddenly switched off from a nearly constant value of 11.40 years. Later on the 11.40 year period decreased towards a minimum value of 9.7 years around 1945 and since then increased again to the value of 11.4 years (Attolini et al., 1985). I add to the list of coincidences the results of Zappala and Zuccarello (1991), which show that the equatorial velocity of the Sun decreased at the beginning of this century, around 1903. Moreover, the 154-day periodicity of solar activity switched to a periodicity with half the above period in late 1971 (Bai, Sturrock, 1991), again in coincidence with the terrestrial change! The coincidence seems to point at a far-reaching astrophysical interaction between the earthly and the solar core. I note here that the tidal periods of the Moon and the Sun determine the thickness of sediment layers at the bottoms of lakes and this phenomenon shows a 179.3-year period, which coincides with the 180-year secondary period of solar activity (Roosen, Harrington, Giles and Browning, 1976). Not only the minimum of the Earth’s rotation show connections with the solar activity period, but also, as Currie (1973) showed, the rotation rate of the Earth actually correlates with the solar activity.
Trying to understand what do these coincidences mean, it is important to note, that within the third time-range of coincidences in 1969-1971, at first the Earth produced the jump in 1969 (Le Mouel, Gire, Madden, 1985), and the Sun followed it only afterwards, in late 1971. In a time-linear causal sequence this circumstance would involve that the Earth was more sensitive to the global conditions of solar system at that time, and that the core changes of the Earth induced changes in the solar core. This circumstance points to a mutuality in the core-core interactions, since it seems to be clear that at other occasions the Sun was the initiator of correspondence.
It is interesting to note here the recent results of Jeanloz and Lay (1993, see also Irion’s report on the research results of Steve Grand, Bruce Buffett, Ed Garnero, Don Helmberger, 1998) show that the site of the most intense geological activity is not the surface of the Earth but the core-mantle boundary, the so-called D” layer. The temperature jump in this 40 km thick region is some 1000 K, and increase in density greater than that between air and soil. Ultra-sensitive processes take place in this wild, iron-rich, highly conducting region which deforms and flows about a trillion times more readily than the solid mantle above it. In a 200 metre thick region of D”, the combined gravitational pulls of Earth, Sun and the Moon generates strong electric currents which influence the Earth’s magnetic field and the tiny wobbles in Earth’s axis of rotation, called “nutations”. These results show The activity of the D” layer directly influences the rotation and the magnetic field of the Earth.
The “hot spots” as observed in the surface of the Earth are regions showing violent volcanic activity, and their surroundings are hotter then average. This hot spots do not move with the continental drift but show rigid rotation, indicating their deep origin from the core. As the continents move during the millions of years, the magma chamber in the core of the hot spots stay fixed and therefore a whole chain of volcanoes will be produced as in the case of the Hawaii islands. P. R. Vogt has shown, that the volcanic activity in some different hot spots sets up intermittently, but then simultaneously, indicating a global origin. Therefore , it is indicated that the changes of the Earth’s core are in a dynamical connection with the Solar System, and that they generate dynamical processes in the whole body of the Earth. In the context of the researches showing ultra-sensitive, resonant processes present in the Sun and in the Solar System, it is pointed out that not only the biosphere can be a self-regulating super-organism, as in the Gaia-model of James Lovelock, but also the main body of the Earth seems to show the most important characteristics of living systems.
The Nature of the Core-core Interaction
The changes of the Earth’s magnetic field with periods larger than decades are undoubtedly the results of changes of the Earth’s core. So if the Earth’s core changes in correlation with the solar core, they have to interact and influence each other. It seems to be obvious that the interaction between the Earth’s and solar core is of gravitational nature. Nevertheless, although the magnitude of the gravitational attraction of these bodies to each other is extremely small in comparison to their self-gravitation, they are changing because of their movement, and so the Earth may exert a regulatory gravitational influence on the solar core, since the solar core is in a permanent ultrasensitive state (Grandpierre, 1999b). Nevertheless, it is not known, whether any ultrasensitively amplifying mechanisms exists available for the Earth’s fluid core to amplify the solar influences. I am aware of two factors which may be responsible for the coupling of the Earth’s and Sun’s core. First, the 11.2-year period would be present in the solar system as a gravitational period, determined as the quasi-alignment of the Jupiter-Earth-Venus triumvirate (Grandpierre, 1996b). Nevertheless, this alignment-effect cannot induce changes in the Earth, because the Earth is an active participator in generating this period.
Another effect seems more plausible, an interaction of electromagnetic origin between the cores. If the solar core produces a sudden change, the magnetic field lines originating from the solar core would be influenced. On the other hand, we know that a significant amount of the solar magnetic field lines directly trans-sect the Earth’s core trough the poles, as the earthly magnetosphere and the solar magnetic heliosphere directly and permanently interact. In this way a change in the one’s core triggers directly a change in the other’s core. Electric field changes induce magnetic fields, and these magnetic fields may influence the rotation rates, too. It seems to be worthwhile to study the electromagnetic coupling mechanism between the cores of the Earth and the Sun. Anyway, the presented phenomena point to the presence of a mutually sensitive regulative mechanism between the cores. The presence of an electromagnetic coupling mechanism between the cores of the Earth and the Sun may exert a direct influence on the organisms of the earthly biosphere, as their cells are regulated by ultraweak electromagnetic fields. We found an interesting pathway between the cosmic and organic phenomena. There exist a huge literature of the relations between the Sun, Moon, planets and the living beings (see e.g. Playfair, Hill, 1976).
The Sun as a living organic being
The Sun is handled in astrophysics as a mere ‘gaseous sphere’ with a radiative core in which the energy is released but no significant motions may set up. This is expressed in the standard solar model with the assumption of perfect hydrostatic equilibrium in the inner 70 percent of solar radius. Nevertheless, the arguments for making this ‘static’ assumption happened on the basis of assuming complete spherical symmetry. I pointed out, that the magnetic field of the members of the solar system is related to the presence of a satellite. The Earth has a magnetic field, since it has a Moon. The Venus, being a twin-planet of the Earth, having very close characteristics, do not have a moon and do not have a magnetic field either. A general relation exists (Novotny, 1983), showing the existence of a nearly linear relation between the planetary magnetic moment and the amplitude of the tidal deformation. Therefore, the magnetic field of the Sun, being produced periodically on a timescale of eleven years, may be related to the planetary influences. I found that in the solar core local mass injections set up in the form of hot bubbles, which develop as the result of the interaction of the planets and the Sun (Grandpierre, 1990, 1996, 1999a, b). The planets exert tidal forces of the solar core. The arising tidal flows enter to the magnetic field of the core. The interaction of the plasma flow with the magnetic field generates a high electric heating which accelerates the nuclear reactions releasing significant amount of energy. The more heat is released by the nuclear reactions, the more the nuclear reactions are accelerated and produce even more heat. I has been shown that if the tidal-electric heating may produce a local heating above 100 million Kelvin degree. This heating may lead to a thermal instability, producing an explosive hot region in which thermonuclear runaway develops. The hot bubbles are less dense than their surroundings, therefore they start to rise by the buoyant Archimedic force. When the size of the bubbles reach 200 meters, they are able to survive the frictional, dissipative effects and can continue their travel to the outer solar atmosphere. There they are transformed into energetic particle beams, which are shooted outwards from the close subphotospheric regions, to the apex of the magnetic flux bundles transported by the hot bubble from below. The interaction of the particle beam and the magnetic flux bundle generates the flare phenomenon, one of the most spectacular events in the cosmos.
I gathered sixteen ‘tantalising’ problems, all related to the physical processes of the solar core, showing that the solar neutrino problem is accompanied by an unignorably large body of fundamental astrophysical problems. It was also possible to refute the generally accepted mechanism (MSW) for the (physical) explanation of the solar neutrino problem. Analysing the remarkable list of solar astrophysical problems, I showed that each of them suggests a direct connection between the solar core and its surface, and suggesting the presence of a highly explosive process producing heavy elements in the solar core in relation with the solar activity cycle. This until now unknown energy source present in the solar core is modelled as generated by macroscopic flows and local magnetic fields in the solar core (Grandpierre, 1990). If a macroscopic flow enters a local magnetic field, it generates electric fields, which in turn produce heating. The heating triggers a positive feedback cycle in the solar core, as the energy production depends on a high power (4 to 16) of temperature. The explosions spread and grow until they reach a critical size (Grandpierre, 1984), determined to be around 200 meters linear size and 1015 g mass, when the buoyant force shoots them out from the solar core. All the astrophysical problems, including the solar neutrino problems, are interpreted consistently with the calculated model fitted to the data of the solar chlorine neutrino detector, and it is consistent with the measurements of the other neutrino detectors as well (Grandpierre, 1998a,b,c,d).
Regarding the source of the macroscopic motions, it is important to notice that the planetary tides induce macroscopic movements in the Sun with a velocity around 100m/s (Öpik, 1972). On the other hand, the planetary tides seem to correlate with the solar activity for more than 200 years (last 18 cycles), as shown by Wood (1972). The solar activity shows periods commensurable to the periods of Mercury, Venus, with the periods of co-aligning of the Jupiter, Earth and Venus. Actually, the period of solar activity is theoretically derived as coinciding with the quasi-coalignment periods of these three planets (Grandpierre, 1996a). If the source of macroscopic velocity fields in stellar cores is the stellar satellites, planetary systems or companion stars, then all stars with satellites (stars or planets) should show activity phenomena, and they have to be in a permanent astrophysical inequilibrium. This fundamental inequilibrium makes the stars in a basic aspect similar to the living systems, being far from thermodynamic equilibrium as well. The presence of a permanent and regenerative inequilibrium yields to the presence of free energy which is the basic condition of any life phenomenon (Bauer, 1935).
A brain-approach to understand connections between Man and the Universe
I assume that the “unit” of the information processing of a brain is related to the quantum-mechanical reduction of the wave function of a free particle from a larger volume to the site of the information processing brain. I derived the relations between the mass of this particle, the time scale of the process and the size of the brain on the basis of the uncertainty relation. I show that the application of the formula discloses the possibility of global-local information coupling between systems of very different sizes through the mediation of free quanta. “Phantom-fields” are observed free quanta are able to mediate information between macrosystems, involving their electromagnetic organisation levels. Coherence effects in macrosystems are able to amplify the sign transfer in an optimal way. It is suggested that a coherent homomorphism is present between the living organisms and the Universe which builds up a mutual feedback, a vital cosmic process between the living organisms and the Universe. The results show that there exist physical particles which may convey information from cosmic macrosystems to human brains. It is shown that the candidate particle to mediate ‘brain interactions’ between the Universe and living organisms are the axions and the cosmological particle.
The basic point of this work (the “brain approach”) is the assumption that there exist a coupling between different macrosystems which can be approximated as an information processing which is related to the localisation of the wave function (“reduction”) of a quasi-free particle from a larger extension involving the interacting macrosystems to the locus of the “receiving” macrosystem, the brain. This information processing is suggested to be related to “thinking” in case of human beings. This global-local coupling, which was indicated above being present in the formation of solar system, and in the Sun, and between living organisms and the celestial bodies of the solar system, is in the followings shown to be present in between cells, cells and organisms, organisms and the Earth, Sun, and the Universe-as-a-whole.
Quantum-Vacuum Interactions in the Brain
Eccles (1986, 1994) built up his model of thought-process based on the probabilistic change of the quantum mechanical wave function, assumed to occur without energy supply. Actually, the reduction of the quantum wave function needs energy, as it is easy to see by simple calculations (see also Károlyházi (1966), Pearle and Squires (1994)). A quasi-free elementary particle may be represented by a wave-packet. The wave packet under free circumstances – without interactions – spreads and its width broadens from D x0 to D x1 = D x0+ D x, where
D x = ht/mD x0 , (1)
see e.g. Bohm (1954). The energy of the wave packet in its stage i is
Ei = h2/2m(D xi)2, (2)
Therefore, the energy change related to the spreading of the wave function, when its width grows from D x0 to D x1 = D x0 + D x is
D E = h2/2m(D x0)2 – h2/2m(D x1)2 (3)
I point out, that the energy change related to the smoothing and collapse of the wave function suggest the presence of a quantum zero point field, similar to the electromagnetic zero point field of stochastic electrodynamics (Boyer, 1975). If the quasi-free particle looses energy as its wave function smoothes out, this can be regarded as transported to a quantum vacuum. Since the wave function of a quasi free particle extends to the whole universe, I suggest that the lost energy is transported by quantum-interactions to the particle-reservoir of the whole Universe. Therefore, the quantum reaction of the Universe is able transfer back this energy through quantum re-actions.
This assumption is partly inspired and substantiated by the quantum-vacuum interaction (QVI) theory of Ervin Laszlo (1995). This assumption seems to be plausible since experimental results suggest the presence of a synchronisation processes of neurones in diverse part of brains (Crick, 1994). Gu and Rauch (1994) noted that the coherency threshold (5) is the one at which the rate of uncertainty for the real particles is minimal and so is the critical value when the signal-to-noise ratio is at a maximum. Using m for the mass of a quantal carrier of information, and approximating Dx = Dx0, we obtain the following relationship between the overall size of a natural ‘brain’ and the time-scale of the information processing within it, using (1):
D x @ (hD t/8p m)1/ 2 (4)
Here D x stands for the width of the quantum wave function of the real particle which carries the information processing in the actual brain. A collapsed wave function, a particle is in a quantum state which is best approximated by a wave packet. The spread in momentum (i. e. in the velocity) values implies that the wave packet will spread in time. The more localised a particle is, the more quickly it spreads. A similar formula is presented in Bohm (1954), section 5.5.4, without applications in biology. Here, D x has a meaning of a coherency length, and Dt, the time of the spread for e.g. doubling the width of the wave function. In this case D x = D x0, D E = 3/4E0.
Formula (4) is a relation between the mass of the material carrier, the linear size of the natural brain working with this material carrier and processing the related information, and Dt is the time-scale of information processing. Therefore, formula (4) do not give one peculiar mass in general. If one consider a certain information processing process, it has to find its time-scale, and its characteristic linear size, then formula (4) will give the mass of the material carrier belonging to this process. Therefore, allowing larger linear scale to the same time-scale, the mass of the material carrier may be smaller. This way it is possible to involve electromagnetic photons with even smaller mass than 10-33 (and 10-43 ) g. In relation to (4), it is important to acknowledge a recent reference (Bo. Lehnert and S.Roy : Extended Electromagnetic Theory, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 1998) related to status of photon mass. The main result of formula (4) that it determines four ranges of mass: the neural mass, the mass of electron, the mass of photons (wide range), and the mass of cosmological particles (non-electromagnetic, ultralight Higgs-field).
Applications to Human and Cellular Brains
First of all, it is interesting to calculate the material carrier of global human brain. It is possible to calculate the mass of this carrier with formula (4) if we use values of the parameters characteristic to the human brain. Using for D x=10 cm and for D t the time necessary for the development of an activation potential in a neurone is t = 10– 3 s (S. Rose, 1973). Formula (4), with these input parameters, then gives an exciting result of m@ 10-33 g. This result suggests that the human brain interacts with the vacuum waves through the electromagnetic field quanta.
Now let us use formula (4) the other way round, looking for brains with electrons as material carriers of thought, with mass me @ 9* 10–28 g. With the help of these given values, we can estimate the size of the macroscopic brain thinking with electrons:
L (natural electronic brain, t =10– 3 s) @ 10– 2 cm (5)
This limit is close to the size of cells, namely 10– 3 cm – 10– 2 cm. This result means that if we want to construct a brain processing information through interaction of its electrons with vacuum waves, the brain has to have a size characteristic of the cells, if its biological characteristic time scale is t = 10-3 s. The consistency of this result may indicate that cells process information through electron-vacuum wave interactions. Nevertheless, if cells absorb energy from the vacuum, it should be possible that they give back this amount of energy to the vacuum, otherwise the interaction may decelerate quickly. We know that cells are able to give back the energy from their free energy reservoir, a general characteristics of all living system (Bauer, 1920).
At the same time, the cells may simultaneously use a faster, lighter material carrier of information processing, because their environment is much smaller and therefore changes much more quickly. In the estimation of this time scale one can use the fact that the human organism processes 109 – 1010 bit/s information unconsciously, while at the same time the conscious mind is only able to cope with 102bit/s. If the time scale of the cells’ information processing is proportional to the rate of the conscious information processing and that of the deep mind, which seems to be a reasonable assumption, then the time-scale of this more subtle cellular information processing is t = 10– 9 s. This value is substantiated by the reaction rates in the interior of cells, known to be around 108-1012 s-1 (Ruth, 1989). Moreover, the lifetime of a hydrogen bound within a living cell is again 6* 10-9 s. A typical lifetime of the electronic excitations in normal metabolism is 10-8 s (Bauer, Borsdyko, 1936). Formula (4) with D x @ 10– 2 cm with t @ 10-9 s then gives a value of 10– 32 g for the mass of this material carrier, which can be appropriate for the mass-energy of a photon (E @ 10 eV). This result points, interestingly, to the presence of electromagnetic waves in the cell regulation. Independently from the ambiguity of the time scales accepted here, if the trend of acceleration of thought processes towards deeper mental levels is real, than we are supplied with an insight by formula (4) that electromagnetic processes dominate in a certain mental depth. I have to point out, that the new branch of science bioelectromagnetism is based on the recognition that cells and multicellular organisms are regulated by electromagnetic processes.
Quantum Energy Transfer Between the Brain and the Material Carriers of Thought
Let us estimate now the amount of energy transfer between vacuum and quanta. The uncertainty principle gives us a tool to estimate the energies relevant to the individual time scales. When using t @ 10-3 s, we have for E @ 5* 10-25 ergs, while for t @ 10-9 s, E @ 5* 10-19ergs. The energy change of the electron localised to a human brain is estimated to be
E = p2/2m @ h2/(32p 2(D x)2m) (6)
i. e. 10– 30 ergs with D x= 10cm for electrons.
On the physical basis presented here one can construct the following chain of events for an interaction between the mind and the brain.
In the first step the information is contained and mediated by the vacuum field. These vacuum waves may interact with electromagnetic waves in giving them their information in the second step. The electromagnetic waves then may interact with the biomolecules of the brain, like sunshine interacts with chlorophyll molecules transferring the energy of the sunlight into chemical free energy. From this available chemical energy the activation potentials of the neural networks are built up. Nevertheless, all four steps could be simultaneously influenced by the vacuum waves.
The frequencies of the vacuum waves obtained here are remarkably close to the observed frequencies at cell divisions. This circumstance suggests that the way vacuum waves interact with material waves can be a resonant phenomenon. The vacuum waves may transfer their energies and information content to material waves at the same frequencies. The real energy transfer could be necessary only at the onset of some material processes in an upper level of the mind. Here, I suggest a picture in which the different levels of our minds may work with progressively more subtle material carriers, while the deepest one works with vacuum waves without any net energy transfer taking place in the end, because the energy taken out from the vacuum may be put back by the brain itself when reading important information from the psi-field. It could be the reason why only living organisms with a significant free energy content are able to react on the basis of the information read out.
Quantum-Vacuum Interaction between the brain and the Universe
Regarding global-local couplings between cosmic systems and human brain, we have to consider the reduction of the wave function from a global size to a local one. In this case we cannot approximate the reduction of the wave function from its original size to the size of brain as jump between comparable sizes, so we have to use the original formula (1) in the case when
D x = ht/mD x0 >> D x0, (7)
which may be reached only when
m << ht/(D x0)2. (8)
The sizes of a brain thinking with electromagnetic waves are within the range of
L(EM brain) @ 10– 8 cm – 1.6* 109 cm @ R(atom) – R(Earth) (9)
being the limiting values. The atomic size arises from formula (8) working with t = 10– 14 s as the lifetime of the van der Waals bonds choosing for “m” the mass of the most energetic electromagnetic waves m(gamma rays) @ 10-27 g. The upper limit arises from the time-scale of the global brain, t @ 103 sec and the lower limit from the mass-energy of the least energetic electromagnetic waves m(radio waves) @ 10-43 g. It is interesting to note here, that the frequency belonging to the largest electromagnetic brain is around 1 – 100 Hz, in the range of the brain and Schumann terrestrial EM waves.
The coupling to the Universe – the cosmological particle
The formula (8) has a deep physical meaning, indicating that if we want a coupling with a cosmic macrosystem, and we want that the time scale be kept on the scale of the human information processing, we have to apply particles with extremely small masses. For example, if we regard the timescale of aware consciousness, t=10-3 s, and also D x0= 10 cm, while D x would represent the linear size of the Universe, D x=1018 cm, we will got for the mass of the cosmic-aware particle mca:
mca ~ 10-49 g, in other system of units mca ~ 10-15 eV (10)
If we want a coupling between out deep-mind and the Universe, we have tdm=10-9s, and so
mdm ~ 10-21 eV, (11)
and for the genetic mind, with tgm~ 10-21 s (see section II.),
mgm ~ 10-33 eV. (12)
An important characteristic of a “cosmological particle” i.e. a particle coupling the cosmic macro-systems to human information processing is that it has to be quasi-free during its lifetime. This condition may be supplied if the cosmic particle do not interact frequently during its lifetime. Therefore, this cosmic particle has to be a weakly interacting particle, like the neutrino or the very weakly interacting particle, the axion. We do not know the masses of these particles. Present day physics and astrophysics tells that the neutrinos have masses smaller than 10-2 eV, and the ‘invisible’ axion around 10-5 eV (on the nature of axions see the review of G. Raffelt, 1990; on their biophysical effects see Zioutas, 1990, 1992, 1997). Between these two candidates, the axion is the one which can participate in the biological organisation processes of organisms and so in playing role in our information processing, since the neutrinos interact preferentially with nucleons and electrons, while the axion interactions are enhanced with electromagnetic fields. Since electromagnetic (EM) fields play a dominant role in biological organisation, the direct coupling of axions to EM fields makes them suitable to couple the cosmic information to the organism. Moreover, as the independent presence of the vacuum trace of the EM field of the DNA (see on the “phantom-effect” Poponin, 1998) after the deposition of the DNA from the observed volume indicate that the EM organisation fields exist at the most fundamental level of organisms. These organisation fields may interact directly through the mediation of axions, and transmit informations from one organism to the other. This phantom-interaction occurs between the fundamental tracers of the organisation fields in the primary vacuum, therefore they are not limited through the space-time barriers of the material world. Observations seem to support the direct interaction of consciousness and the conformal structure of the DNA helix (Rein, 1998). Conformational changes were measured by standard biochemical methods using UV absorption spectroscopy at 260 nm. Samples treated with the conscious intention to unwind DNA caused a larger increase in absorption from 2-10% depending on the experiment. Samples treated with the intention to wind DNA caused a decrease in absorption from 2-5%. These effects, which are statistically significant, indicate that DNA is sensitive to the informational content of consciousness. It is interesting to note here, that the axions – since they are the coherent oscillations of the scalar vacuum – may be amplified in the DNA in an enormous rate 1010-1020 (Zioutas, 1997). I suggest that the axions interact with the DNA through its EM field, producing photons by their decay in a magnetic field. These photons may be resonantly amplified in the DNA. The origin of biophotons is a collective phenomenon. Biophotons are generated not by one individual molecule, even DNA, but when a large aggregate of molecules are coupled to each other (Bischof, 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the field-concept to interpret the origin of biophotons. Measurements show that their nature is coherent. This circumstance is consistent with my suggestion that the biophotons are the result of axion-DNA interactions.
Regarding our formula (10)-(11)-(12), we can observe that the appearing mass scales are too small to interpret them through axions. Nevertheless, my results are quite consistent with the results of Dreitlein (1974) and Estrada Vigil – Masperi (1997). Joseph Dreitlein was the first physicist recognising the cosmological significance of the Higgs-particles. Starting from the assumption that the primary vacuum has a physical structure formed by the non-vanishing energy-momentum tensor of the matter-free, empty vacuum, he described the primary vacuum interactions with an interaction mediated by an extremely light Higgs-boson. Identifying the term of the energy-momentum tensor with the cosmological constant, of which we derived an upper limit by observations, he derived an upper limit on the mass of this Higgs-particle:
mj < 4.6 x 10-27 me ~ 2 x 10-33 eV (13)
Recently, Juan Estrada Vigil and Luis Masperi (1997) Argentinean physicists derived the mass of the lightest conceivable matter particle in our universe, which is a Goldstone boson coming from spontaneous symmetry breakdown at Planck mass scale. Interpreting the present cosmological constant as the potential of the lightest pseudo Goldstone boson, they derived its mass as:
mj ~ 10-32 eV (14)
We can observe the good agreement between the formulas (12), (13) and (14).
These results show that there exist physical particles which may convey information from cosmic macrosystems to human brains and vice versa. The size of a brain thinking with vacuum waves can be
L(vacuum waves) @ L(cells), L(human brain), R(Earth), R(Sun), R(Universe). (15)
The different vacuum waves couple us in a different scale to the cosmos and to our bodies and brains, while the electromagnetic and electron waves present couplings between our environment, our brains and local neural processes. These couplings to the different scales of the outer world represent couplings between our different mind levels, simultaneously. In this context it is important to note, that these outer sources of information – the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and the Universe as a whole – do show a whole range of generalised organic processes (Grandpierre, A., 1995a, 1997).
The role of coherence in the interactions of brains and macrosystems
Coherency, as a collective effect, plays a central role in the information exchange between macrosystems. In case of coherency the sensitivity of the receiver ‘S’ is characterised with a number of its coherent subsystems N as S ~ N2 (see Freedman et al, 1977; Li, 1994 etc.). The transfer of information is optimal through systems with similar, homomorph structure. Therefore a macrosystem ‘A’ can send a sign to a macrosystem ‘B’ in an optimal way if the systems are homomorphic and the mediation of the information occurs through a coherent process. The N2 effect is a quantum-effect, its physical base is the superposition of wave functions. Therefore, the N2 effect is present in the primary vacuum, which has a pure quantum nature, between the structures of the organisation fields of biological macrosystems. Therefore, evolution may be regarded as the evolution of sub-systems towards structures more and more enriched and homeomorphic with the cosmic macrosystems, and their genetic factor, the primary vacuum.
The organising principle in the vacuum field
In the first part, I tried to present a picture, build up on present day physics and astrophysics, which shows that an organising principle has to be at work at the origin of the solar system and at the ultraresonant interactions between the planets and the solar core. The developed brain-approach to the Universe indicated that there may exist an EM and quantum-vacuum coupling between Man and the Earth, Man and the Sun, Man and the Universe. Moreover, it is indicated that the Sun shows a fundamental openness and ultrasensitivity, which presents it as showing a fundamental life-phenomenon known as perception. Perception is an interaction in which a stimulus enters into the perceiver which transform it by its own (biopsychological) laws, selects the information by its own interpretation, and reacts to the selected, developing an answer which energetically is amplified in a ‘cosmic’ rate R= Ein/Eout > 1010 . What is the reason to this ‘cosmic rate’ amplification? I suggest that the reason is to amplify the information which is important to the Universe-as-a-whole, since the higher rate it is amplified it, the more easy to transfer it to other macrosystems for further information processing. In that sense the ultrasensitivity of living beings is a participation in a cosmic information processing. In this way we reached a cosmic interpretation of the most fundamental life phenomenon.
All these investigations call the attention to the circumstance that the Universe has a biological nature. Therefore, it has a central importance in founding the biological approach to astrophysics, in which theoretical cosmic biology offers a biological principle to understand cosmic phenomena, that there exist or not a superluminal speed in the Universe. If the Universe is a giant organism, it has to be able to transfer regulative information between its most distant parts quick enough that it can react to the transferred information in due time. Therefore, allowing that life is a process containing a cosmic number of events, N > 1010 (this is the number of the heart-rates in a lifetime at humans, mammals in general, insects, as well as the number of solar cycles in the lifetime of the Sun). Regarding the fact that the Universe is the richest cosmic system, with a number of elementary particles Ne ~ 1080, we can assume the number of ‘cosmic events’ in the lifetime of the Universe ‘tU‘ as NU > 1080. Now we are ready to determine a lower bound to the speed of the assumed cosmic information vU from one point of the Universe to the other one posited at a distance ‘RU‘ denoting the linear size of the Universe. For one ‘cosmic event’ it is necessary a time RU/vU. For ‘cosmic events’ in a number ‘NU‘ it is necessary a time NU*RU/vU. In order that so many “cosmic events’ may occur during the lifetime of the Universe, it is necessary that
NU*RU/vU < tU . (16)
Now substituting the age of the Universe for tU, 1010 years, and RU ~ 1027 cm, the arising speed
vU > 1080*1027cm/1010*3*107 sec ~ 3*1090 cm/sec ~ 1080 c, (17)
where ‘c’ is the speed of light. Therefore, it is as basic for the Universe to possess a superluminal, ultrafast regulative information transfer, as for a human being a sub-chemical, sub-molecular regulative process to assure life processes (Szent-Gyorgyi Albert, 1960, 1973). Light and tachions propagating with a speed not much larger than ‘c’ can participate in the organisation of ‘local’ phenomena which extends to a size smaller than that of the solar system.
Actually, there exist a large literature of indicated superluminal processes. One of them are the well-known tachions (Alvager, Kreisler, 1968; Feinberg, 1967; Chiao, Kwiat and Steinberg, 1993 ). The measured negative mass-square of the electron neutrino may indicate its tachionic nature. Another candidate for superluminal information transfer may be the so-called scalar waves. As scalar waves do frequently occur in the context of biological effects (see e.g. Bischof, 1995, Zeiger, Bischof, 1999; Bearden’s works; E. Laszlo, 1995), and since their physical nature is somewhat obscure, including their propagation speed, it is necessary to present a solid physical base of scalar waves.
The nature of scalar waves
In a basic physics textbook (Akhiezer, Berestetskii, 1962, p. 31), the longitudinal and scalar EM waves are acknowledged as related to the fictious photons states (as the scalar component equal to the longitudinal one, the energy and momentum of the photon in these coupled states are zero). Nevertheless, it is necessary to introduce these longitudinal and scalar potentials, related to the longitudinal and timelike polarisation of the photons, in addition to the real transversal polarisation states, when there are interactions between photons and electrons. When the charges do not balance their EM effects, the longitudinal and timelike photons play a substantial role besides the transversal ones. Although the coupled mass, energy and momentum of these longitudinal and timelike photons are zero, they are real existents, since they generate the attractive and repulsive Coulomb-interactions between the charges. Moreover, as I found out in Landau-Lifschitz (1968), even the spin of the longitudinal and timelike photons are zero. They seem almost completely immaterial, all the quantum numbers being zero, yet they mediate the most strong large-scale forcefield, the EM field. I suggest that they cannot be regarded as ‘nonexistent’ or ‘superfluous’ particles, but in the contrary, they are the primary foundations of all the other particles. They represent the primary waves on the primordial physical continuum of the vacuum, which is not yet recognised but are the ultimate source of fermions and bosons (see later on).
It is a usual assumption to regard the cosmic dimension as electrically neutral (see e.g. Davies, 1971). Nevertheless, recently Kortvelyessy (1998) pointed out, that the thermoelectric effect makes the Earth electrically charged. This effect develops as the electrons are more mobile than protons, therefore in the core of the Earth at the large temperature, the electrons diffuse outwards and make the Earth charged. Actually, it is well know that the Earth carries an electric charge around 105 Coulomb. This charge is responsible for the most part of the atmospheric electricity (see e.g. Feynman lectures). One can think that the electrons may be expelled to the atmosphere, but the Earth with its atmosphere can be electrically neutral. This cannot happen, since the magnetosphere of the Earth is opened at the occasions of magnetic storms, so the free electrons contained in it may escape. The same thermoelectric heating may be relevant at the generation of magnetic fields of celestial bodies, including that of the Earth and the Sun. Moreover, the Sun has to be also electrically charged by the same reasons, and the expelled electrons may leave towards the edge of the heliosphere, behind the limits of the planetary system. It is not known, when the heliosphere may be opened, but it has to open occasionally at its interactions with the Oort-cloud, containing the comet-reservoir, and at events representing its interactions with its environment. Galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays enter into the earthly magnetosphere, therefore they represent some known forms of these local-global interactions. One may consider the galactic and larger scales as well as representing higher level organisations, which may be responsible for their net electric charge. In this way, all the systems from which the Universe builds up, are electrically charged systems, therefore it is not realistic to ignore electric charges at the study of the Universe. Consequently, longitudinal and scalar waves are present and penetrate the whole Universe.
It is important to get an insight into the possible propagation speed of the scalar and longitudinal waves. Feynman (1961, Chap. 20, p. 95ff) derives how the Coulomb interaction between electric charges arise as the contribution of the longitudinal and scalar photons to the amplitude of scattering process. The result is the instantaneous Coulomb interaction. To avoid confusion, Feynman suggests that the longitudinal and timelike photons are actually coupled to the transversal ones (l=1,2 components) , and since the latter ones propagate with a finite speed, therefore the longitudinal-timelike (l=3,4 components) has to propagate with the same finite speed of light. I point out here that this view cannot be right, since in the mechanics of continuous media it is well-known that the transversal and longitudinal waves represent two different process which are not coupled. Each of them have their own speed which are presented in most of the relevant textbooks. The longitudinal waves are induced by compression, the transversal waves are generated by shear. This result is consistent with my previous remark that the l=3,4 photons do not have spin, i.e. they represent compression of vacuum, while the transversal ones (l=1,2 do possess spin=1, therefore they represent a shear of vacuum. Therefore, the l=1,2 and l=3,4 EM photons actually represent different phenomena, and so they cannot be ‘coupled’.
Is it possible at all, that the Coulomb-potential propagates with a finite speed? Let’s work out a thought-experiment. A charge (or pair of charges) is created somewhere in the vacuum. How its Coulomb force-field develops? If it would develop with a finite speed, the energy represented in the forcefield would grow in time. But the law of the conservation of energy should be satisfied. This is not possible, since the energy represented within the charge cannot decrease to balance the growth outside, since there is another law to fulfil, the law of conservation of charge. Therefore, the assumption of finite propagation speed of Coulomb-potential leads to a contradiction. Consequently, the Coulomb-potential sets up immediately in the whole space, until the end of the Universe.
By my suggestion, the immediate far-action supplies the solution to the fundamental problem of electrodynamics: where exists the EM energy, locally or globally. Maxwell (1892, Vol. II, p. 212) recognised, that the EM energy is simultaneously present in the current circuit and the field around the circuit. He understood that the current flowing in the circuit is able to electrolysis, to separate the different charges, and generate Joule-heat locally. At the same time, the energy is present in the surrounding field also, and can do work there as well. Maxwell suggested, to solve the apparent dilemma, that a certain part of the EM energy is present locally, another part of it is present globally. Nevertheless, I am aware of the fact that the calculations give the same value for the two forms of energy, both of them representing the whole EM energy, in a way that if the energy changes globally or locally, it changes simultaneously in the other form with the same amount. Feynman expressed his view that the EM energy is present globally. This I accept as true. But the real point is that it is present locally as well. Therefore, I point out that it is inevitable to solve the apparent dilemma of local-global forms of EM energy, and that it is possible only when accepting an immediate far-action of Coulomb-field. This result is numerically proven by the cited quantum electrodynamical calculations of Feynman.
Accepting that the longitudinal and timelike photons are able to mediate physical potential fields, one may think they can carry other information also with them. We know that the transversal field carry rich information from the material body emitting it. A strange and remarkable propensity if the world that it produces a duplicity of events. When an event sets up, it is also accompanied with an information released to the Universe, in the forms of photons, EM and scalar waves, sound waves and particles. This universal communicative tendency is probably present in the case of longitudinal and timelike photons as well. Present day physics regards particles identical within a particle species like e.g. electrons. Actually, physically, all the histories of electrons differ from each other, therefore it is possible that they preserve their histories in the form of subtle information fields which may modulate the wave function. Therefore, the longitudinal and timelike photons may mediate the primal interaction organising the Universe, as well as participate in the organisation of chemical and biological processes. In this case, the l=3,4 photons may explain the phenomenon of spontaneous targeting (Grandpierre, 1997).
As the Sun, which is the most well-known star, but still showing substantial surprise, and the presence of a cosmic organisational activity, the formation of water from its compound molecules, H2 + O Ţ H2O, which is the chemical reaction from which the most detailed knowledge are available for us, is still far from being understood. Hemley (1995) remarked that this reaction between hydrogen and oxygen is surely one of the best studied chemical reactions, but details of the reaction kinetics have always been enigmatic. We know from experience, that when adding heat to the mixture of oxygen and hydrogen gases, water fill be formed in an explosive manner. Nevertheless, we know from theory that actually, very special conditions are necessary to the formation of a water molecule: the atoms have to collide in a narrow parameter regime with the proper impact factors like energy, momentum, distance, angle, and timing, that a bounded molecule be resulted. The probability of the formation of a molecule in a collision is very low. Although there are many collisions setting up, we need not only one molecule but practically all the molecules should be formed. This is not possible without the active presence of an organising agent.
I recognised the necessity of this organising factor in chemistry and suggest a term spontaneous targeting to that phenomenon. This phenomenon seems to be present in the field of biology as well. Mikhailov and Ness (1995) showed that when a new protein molecule is produced at a membrane, it is loaded into a budding vesicle which then moves through the cell until it reaches its target at another membrane location. They presented evidences for their assumption that vesicles detect the direction leading to their targets and can actively move towards them. Thus, the behaviour of vesicles resembles that of entire cells in chemotaxis and in the phenomenon of cell-to-cell communication. The intrinsic reference frame needed for detection of the motion direction by vesicles could be provided by the intracellular chemical gradients and/or by the electrical fields present inside a living cell.
The same problem of the existence of a targeting mechanism seems to work in the olfactory field, as well. How could the odorant molecules find automatically their receptors? Lewis Thomas (1974) noted that eels have been taught to smell two or three molecules of phenylethyl alcohol. An average man can detect just a few molecules of butyl mercaptan. How the olfactory cells are fired by an odorant is not known. The substance may become bound to the cells possessing specific receptors for it and then may just sit there, somehow displaying its signal from a distance.
How can a molecule to recognise its destination site from a distance, through a crowded field of molecules, which should drift its path randomly when traversing? There is a sharp contrast between the assumption of blind chance and the everyday experience. And it is clear that a remote control is necessary to the spontaneous targeting. The longitudinal and timelike photons seem to be able to cope with this task.
The electromagnetic interaction will become not instantaneous (and may be described e.g. by retarded and advanced potentials) only when the transversal photons are also included. The question of retarded and advanced potentials, especially in the context of the time symmetry of Maxwell equations, leads to another topic (see e.g. Wheeler, Feynman, 1945; Boyer, 1969; Cramers, 1986). Now it is enough to see that longitudinal and scalar photons represent an instantaneous interaction, i.e. immediate action-in-distance. Therefore, they may be related to the cosmic information exchange process. Actually, it is interesting that while the coupled longitudinal-scalar waves do not represent mass and energy, they are the ones which may convey forces to distance. Therefore, if they may be able to carry non-physical information (because present-day physics handle all the elementary particles as identical, while they may preserve their interactions in their wave function as a modulation wave), they may exert physical regulative power as well as they do when they assure the Coulomb interaction. The EM field may serve as a physical basis for the ‘spontaneous targeting’, the ‘spontaneous collapse’ of the waves to the site of interaction or observation, thus solving the central measurement problem of the present day quantum theory, and to the universal simultaneous organising principle termed as ‘primary perception’ (Grandpierre, 1997).
The longitudinal and timelike photons are important to take into account especially for free particles (Davies, 1971). The EM field of free particles extend to the whole of the Universe. Therefore, longitudinal and scalar EM waves play an important role just for the same free particles which mediate information processes between a natural brain (cell, nervous system, Earth, Sun) and the Universe. The problematical nature of the ‘virtual photons’ , and to distinguish them from ‘real photons’ involves the question how to separate a local process from the rest of the Universe. There is a certain confusion on the instantaneous character of the Coulomb-potential. It is interesting, that Maxwell himself, in the last chapter “Theories of action at a distance” of his book recognized the instantaneous character of some EM effects. The potential does not propagate similarly to light. As Maxwell acknowledges in the last chapter ‘Action at a distance’ of his principal work (1892, p. 863), “Clausius (Poggendorf’s Annalen, bd. cxxxv, p. 612, 1871) shews that the hypothesis that potential is propagated like light does not lead either to the formula of Weber, or to the known laws of electrodynamics. Clausius has also examined a far more elaborate investigation by C. Neumann on the ‘Principles of Electrodynamics’ (Tübingen, 1868). Neumann, however, has pointed out (Mathematische Annalen, i. 317) that his theory of the transmission of potential from one electric particle to another is quite different from that proposed by Gauss, in which the propagation is like that of light. There is, on contrary, the greatest possible difference between the transmission of potential, according to Neumann, and the propagation of light. A luminous body sends forth light in all directions, the intensity of which depends on the luminous body alone, and not of the presence of the body which is enlightened by it. An electric particle, on the other hand, sends forth a potential, the vaue of which ee’/r, depends not only on e, the emitting particle, but also on e’, the receiving particle, and on the distance r between the particles at the instant of emission. In the case of light the intensity diminishes as the light is propagated further from the luminous body; the emitted potential flows to the body on which it acts without the slightest alteration of its original value. The light received by the illuminated body is in general only a fraction of that which falls on it; the potential as received by the attracted body is identical with, or equal to, the potential which arrives at it.”
Nevertheless, Feynman (1949, p. 772) writes that “We know, however, in classical electrodynamics, that the Coulomb potential does not interact instantaneously, but is delayed by a time…”. However, a page before (p. 771), he notes that “We shall discover that the solutions, because of the over-all-space-time view that they permit, are as easy to understand when interactions are delayed as when they are instantaneous.” Later on he reaches a result that “the scalar waves, that is, potentials produced by charge density…result(ing) in an instantaneous interaction”. Now what is the situation with the scalar waves? Do they propagate instantaneously, or not? In his book “QED. The strange theory of light and matter” (1985, p. 9.) Feynman introduces the readers in the following way: “What I am going to tell you about is what we teach …you’re not going to be able to understand it. You see, my physics students don’t understand it either. That is because I don’t understand it. Nobody does.” Unfortunately, I cannot accept such a view of science. I think that everyone working on a field of science should develop an ability to understand the basic ideas. Science should be about understanding and not about obscure mathematical manipulations. Apparently, Feynman, despite the fact that himself was directly involved in writing about the action-in-distance theories in electrodynamics (Wheeler, Feynman, 1945), seems not to be aware of the instantaneous character of electrostatic potentials (produced by charge density) in the most classical electrodynamics of the principal work of Maxwell (1892). Also, Feynman seems not to be aware of the continuous debate on the topic of simultaneous far-distance actions. Therefore, it is important to indicate some of the most important developments on this field.
Universal simultaneous nonlocal interactions
It is pointed out (Assis, 1994; Assis, Graneau, 1996), that in the last decades physics has moved away from field-contact action towards acknowledging the presence of simultaneous far-actions in the Universe. Moreover, a dozen or more decisive electrodynamic experiments were found to be incompatible with relativistic electromagnetism (Graneau, 1994). The results of these experiments could only be explained with the pre-Maxwellian theories of Ampere, F. E. Neumann, Kirchoff, and Weber which were all based on simultaneous far-actions. Another development is the formulation of the Mach-principle with a modified law of Newtonian universal gravitation. This law was first proposed by Weber (see e.g. Weber, 1892-4) and Tisserand (1872). According to this law every particle in the Universe is permanently interconnected to every other particle (Graneau, 1990). Assis and Graneau (1996) applied Weber’s law to gravitation in order to derive Mach’s principle, a result which was derived in a less general form by Scrödinger (1925). Weber’s gravitational form has a more general form than the well-known Newton’s force,
F1,2 = -Hg m1m2/r2[1-6/c2((dr/dt)2/2-r(d2r/dt2)]. (18)
An important branch of research on the nature of longitudinal EM fields is developed by the works of Myron Evans’ (1996) B3-field theory.
The nature of the primordial scalar waves
In quantum field theories, we replace the coordinates by the field F(x), which represents a scalar (number) in each point of the field. This number is interpreted as expressing the amplitude of the primordial oscillations of the field, described usually as the amplitude of the harmonic oscillators (see e.g. Collins, Martin, Squires, 1983, p. 32, and more references therein). Therefore, the Lagrangian function, from which all the laws describing the physics of the vacuum may be obtained by the principle of least action, will be a function of F(x).The Euler-Lagrange equations will determine L (F, ¶ mF). For a free scalar (i.e. spin-0) particle of mass ‘m’ the Lagrangian density is L = 1/2 (¶ mF)(¶ mF) -1/2 m2 F2, which leads to a Klein-Gordon equation for the field F.
One can speculate on the ultimate source of vacuum fields. It is widely known that the EM vacuum field, the zero-point fluctuations (ZPF) of the photon sea of the vacuum are much closer to the primary vacuum than that of the electron-positron fluctuations and other particle-antiparticle pairs, since the photon is a much simpler particle than the electron, having a rest-mass zero. Nevertheless, the transversal photons propagate only with a finite speed, since they propagate in the sea of the EM ZP fluctuations. Of course, they can interact with each other and as a result a kind of EM drag arises in the form of electric and magnetic resistance. As Endre K. Grandpierre pointed out (1967), any propagation speed is a result of the driving and counteracting forces, therefore, the less the resistance of a medium, the larger will be the speed of the same object. This argument can be mathematically formulated as c = 1/(electric resistance * magnetic resistance)1/2 = 1/(e0m0)1/2 ~ 3*1010 cm/sec. Therefore, the statement is proven empirically. This means that if we find a medium which may precede the formation of the EM ZPF, one should find a propagation speed larger than ‘c‘ even for transversal EM waves. Following this logic, it is interesting to look for the ultimate source of all other forms of vacuum. I suggest that this ultimate source may be the spin-0 massless field, since there is not possible to create any Lagrangian which could be simpler than LU = 1/2 (¶ mF)(¶mF). In this context it is important to note that the longitudinal and scalar photons, which may be regarded as ‘simpler’ than transversal photons with spin-1 and finite momentum, because they have spin-0 and momentum-0 as well, are indicated as propagating instantaneously. A new physics of the ultimate, pre-fermionic vacuum may be obtained. All the other particles may be derived when introducing interactions to this primordial vacuum. Self-interactions of F(x) may lead through non-linear effects to creation of spin-finite particles, including real photons and fermions as vortices of the spin-0 m-0 field. These self-interactions contain the substantial information about the nature of the ultimate scalar field. These non-linear interactions must be able to give account on self-organisation principles – or, formulating it in the other way around, the interactions must be the expression of the most ultimate principle behind the vacuum, the cosmic principle of life, that of the vital, meaningful, self-developing organisation.
The nature of the ultimate vacuum field
The notion of the vacuum is a physical concept. Therefore, although it may inspire extensions and generalisations towards a more general concept of the biological field (Zeiger, Bischof, 1999), it is still rooted in the ultimate principle of physics which is the principle of least action. Although the interpretation of this principle seem to demand a kind of conscious activity (since it includes a kind of precognition, a ‘recognition’ which path leads to the optimal one, as well as knowing the principle to follow), at the end it acts to proceed towards an equilibrium concerning the stationary, stabile state. This equilibrium state is principally different from the state towards which the living organisms approach. As Ervin Bauer has shown (1935), biology has its own laws independent from the physical laws. The life principle acts against the tendency towards the equilibrium, to keep the distance from the equilibrium as much as possible. Therefore, the concept that life phenomena and human beings should be understood within the context of physical laws, in the frame of a Theory of Everything (Hawking), is a concept which regards living beings substantially inanimate objects, devoid of self-organising power. I point out that living organisms, including cosmic organisms like Earth and the Sun, in their substantial, ultimate level cannot be understood within the context of physics but that of biology and of a science of consciousness. The material level is only one of the few substantial ones when regarding a living organism. Therefore, even the concept of ‘holism’, the investigation of the build-up of the structure, how the parts form the whole, can not give account from the ultimate principle of the living beings. In contrast to the principle of Blind Chance, general in materialistic views, we need to search, find and create the self-containing principles of living, conscious beings. In creating principles, which could be proper for our own lives, we participate in the creation of the world-process, contributing with a principle deeper than inanimateness, deeper then self-sustaining, but stand by morality, responsibility, and meaningful life. This responsibility has not only an individual, but also a collective character. The organisation principle exist on the level of collective consciousness. It is the task of mankind to recognise the organisational bounds of its deepest essence with the Nature and the Universe, and to live for its completion. Since the aware consciousness apparently do not exists in other cosmic organisms besides humans, the collective consciousness of mankind field may serve as the cosmic center of aware consciousness. And because the consciousness may exert a regulative influence, when shaping reality, it is an urgent task of mankind to form a co-operative consciousness field with the cosmic organisation principle.
When regarding the nature of vacuum from this point of view, we may realise that by the term ‘vacuum’ a fashionable term shows up, which inherits its actuality from the general view that physics is the ultimate science. Now learning that a universal organisation principle is active in the whole Universe, which is not physical in its substance, but only looks to be physical in a certain context, we can realise that the physical term ‘vacuum’ may be exchanged to a more proper context as ‘life principle’. If one wants to follow the present-day fashion, one may refer to the nature of ‘vacuum’ as alive.
The present essay tried to outline for a foundation of an approach directed towards the exploration and comprehension of cosmic organic phenomena present in the Universe. One has to mention the work of Fred Hoyle: The Intelligent Universe, 1983, and some of his related more recent publications, which shows at parts a somewhat close approach to the presented one here. Of course, the limited space did not allow to present the relevant results of the resonant phenomena in the solar system, the life phenomena of the Moon, the Earth and the Sun, the stellar communication, which seems to occur transcending space and time (Kotov, 1985, 1995), the application of the fundamental criteria of theoretical biology to the Universe-as-a-whole (Grandpierre, 1988), the biological effects of the Moon to the earthly organisms (Endres, Schad: Biologie des Mondes, 1996), the self-organising power of the geological Earth, the ultraresonant interaction of the EM waves of the Earth with human brains, the science of biometeorology, quantum biology, quantum brain dynamics, bioelectromagnetism, heliobiology, cosmopsychology, the philosophy of ‘cosmism’, and other important topics. The aim of this essay was to call the attention to the fact that in the Universe there exists an active organising factor, which expresses an activity related to the material ‘objects’, but the substance of which does not exhaust in physical principles but extends towards much deeper realms of existence.
Important evidences are presented which may serve for founding the research the cosmological evolution of cosmic and biological consciousness. A picture is outlined in which Man and Universe maintain multi-level, dynamic, direct connections. Not only the formation of the material of solar system is regulated by a cosmic organisation activity, but there are cosmic fields like gravitational, electromagnetic, scalar-EM, Higgs, and scalar massless cosmic fields involved in the cosmic regulative processes. The cosmic biological and psychological effects influence significantly the biological and psychical, collective and individual organisational processes. The cosmic connections between Man and the Universe do not represent a one-sided action, but a mutual, meaningful, life-giving interaction, in which Man also is an active participant if mankind accept the challenge of fulfilling its original, natural destination.
The author wishes express his thanks to Marco Bischof, for his kind help in introducing into his invaluable library, and for the enlighting discussions. A part of this work was triggered by the initiation of Prof. Ervin Laszlo, in a series of valuable discussion.
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